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  #946  
Old 07-18-2018, 11:24 AM
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18 July 1918

Western Front
Second Battle of the Marne
(German: Unternehmen Friedensturm): High-water mark of the War. End of Unternehmen Friedensturm. Great Allied counter attack on 27-mile front between Fontenoy (6.5 miles north-west of Soissons) and Belleau (6 miles north-west of Chateau-Thierry). Franco-Americans, backed by 2000 guns, attack at 0435 hours. French Tenth Army (Mangin) including US 1st and 2nd Divisions (among 9) supported by 223 tanks (62 hit), achieves complete surprise, and advances up to 4 1/2 miles. French reach Monte de Paris (1 mile from Soissons) and 5 miles of Crise Valley, east of Buzancy. South of Ourcq, French and Americans secure line Marizy-Hautvesnes-Belleau. South of Marne Germans reach St. Agneau. East of Reims French retake Prunay and defeat Prussian Guard east of Prosnes. Allies take 12,000 PoWs and 250 guns from 11 German divisions.
Flanders: Ludendorff holds morning Mons conference (with Rupprecht, army commanders and staffs for projected ‘final offensive’ Hagen scheduled early August), thrown into confusion by news of Marne debacle. Ludendorff immediately sends 2 divisions to threatened front, but news of fresh defeats abruptly ends conference. Army Group Crown Prince William orders 14 German divisions south of the Marne to retire, Ludendorff cancels planned thrusts around Reims and halts transfer of Bruchmueller’s artillery to Flanders. At 1535 hours Rupprecht is ordered to dispatch 2 more divisions to Reims, his diary comments ‘no doubt that we have passed the zenith of our successes’. Ludendorff rows with Hindenburg twice as latter insists on counter-attack from north of Soissons.
French 1st Air Division gives close support to Allied ground attack (for heavy losses) at Chateau-Thierry and Soissons. Comprises 590 aircraft in 2 Groupements each with 12 escadrilles Spad S.13 fighters; 1st Groupement has 9 escadrilles Breguet 14 day bomber and reconnaissance aircraft; 2nd Groupement 6 Breguet escadrilles. RAF (aircraft attached to French XI Corps) also gives support. Allies lose 34 aircraft (14 to JG1) to 8 German. Sergeant Willi Gabriel of Jasta 11 scores 4 victories. Germans regain air supremacy over parts of Marne battlefield (July 22, when 41 Allied aircraft lost for 2 German; until August 6).
French Schneider tanks: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...495765939548161
French Chasseurs cyclists resting near the forest of Villers-Cotterêts during the French counteroffensive: © IWM (Q 78084): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...556172171530240
Airplane raid on Kent; no casualties.
British soldiers picking cherries near Robecq, France: © IWM (Q 11080): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...223985102442497
RAF officer training to fire a gun in a moving “cockpit”: © IWM (Q 10370): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...254190042906627
Ruined church of Saint-Venant, France: © IWM (Q 70565): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...586381071503361
British pilot holding a stuffed owl toy at the aerodrome near St. Omer: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...616588260171778

Eastern Front
Following the assassination of Tsar Nicholas II and his family, Soviet Cheka agents execute several relatives of the Romanov family in Alapayevsk. Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich is shot, while the rest are thrown down a mining shaft and grenades are dropped in.

Political, etc
Austria-Hungary
: Debate in Reichsrat re: "German Course" of Austrian policy.
United Kingdom: Sir L. Worthington-Evans succeeds Lord Robert Cecil as British Minister for Blockade (see February 23rd, 1916).
Japan: Japanese Diplomatic Council approves U.S.'s proposal for intervention in Siberia.
South Africa: (Nelson) Rolihlahla Mandela is born in the village of Mvezo, South Africa.
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  #947  
Old 07-19-2018, 04:27 AM
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19 July 1918

Western Front
Second Battle of the Marne
: French and Americans advance on Soissons-Thierry line, taking Vierzy (north of Ourcq) and Neuilly St. Front (south of Ourcq). South of Marne, French retake Montvoison. Franco-American troops with 195 tanks (50 hit) take 3,000 PoWs and 150 guns, advance 2 miles towards Soissons-Chateau-Thierry road, but German 20th Division regains this artery; south of Marne Allies recapture Montoisin.
Italian troops in France at the 2nd Marne Battle launch a counteroffensive against the Germans through the Ardre valley, forcing the Germans further back. However, the Italians suffer 9,334 casualties out of a total force of 24,000. British 51st and 62nd Divisions replace Italians.
US 2nd Division relieved after 5,000 casualties. British capture Meteren (west of Bailleul), taking 300 prisoners.
American postcard celebrating the battle: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...646783595646978
The first ever carrier-borne air strike takes place. From a position off the Lyngvig Light, HMS Furious launches seven Sopwith Camels (4 lost) modified to carry 2 x 50 pound bombs each, on a dawn strike against German dirigible sheds at Tondern at the mouth of the Elbe. The strike is successful, destroying Germany Navy Zeppelins L-54 and L-60 in their sheds. Three pilots fail to locate carrier, land in Denmark, another drowned at sea (future Air Marshal RAF Dickson one of the two pilots who returned).
HMS Furious in 1918, after the after gun was replaced by a landing deck, allowing aircraft to land on the carrier again: https://i1.wp.com/ww2-weapons.com/w...-1918.jpg?ssl=1
The planes on the deck of the HMS Furious: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...844305454845952

Eastern Front/West Asia Border Theater
North Caucasus
: British operations in Trans-Caspia begin (see August 26th).

Naval and Overseas Operations
United States cruiser San Diego sunk by mine off Fire Island (Atlantic coast), 6 lost.
French liner Australien (Messageries Maritimes) torpedoed in Mediterranean, 20 lost.
Troopship Justicia (converted from a White Star liner) torpedoed off north coast of Ireland, 10 lost.
Destroyer HMS Garry (ramming) and ML23 convoy escorts sink coastal submarine UB-110 off Yorkshire coast.

Political, etc
France
: Franco-Swiss Economic Agreement.
United Kingdom: British Ministerial changes. New British Assistance Foreign Secretary Lord Cecil’s statement of Allied trade policy.
War Cabinet refuses Churchill’s plea to halt ‘combing out’ which has halved tank production, Milner wants men naw not machines later. National Service Ministry finally convince Army of civil doctor priority need.
US Admiral William Sims made (honorary) G.C.M.G.
Statement of Lord R. Cecil re: Allies Trade Policy.
Denaturalisation Bill read third time in House of Commons.
Sedition Committee Report (Rowlatt) published in India.
Italy: Rumanians’ Action Committee formed to organize Rumanian PoWs of Austro-Hungarian Army into legions.
United States: Baseball ‘non-essential’ under ‘Work or Fight’ law.
Minor Allies: Honduras declares war on Germany (see May 17th, 1917).
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  #948  
Old 07-20-2018, 10:32 AM
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gekkogecko gekkogecko is offline
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20 July 1918

Western Front
Second Battle of the Marne
: German forces retreat across the Marne (see 18th). Allies claim 20,000 prisoners and 400 guns since 18 July. British, French and Italians advance in Ardre valley, in Boise de Courton, and towards St. Euphraise.
Charles Mangin has only 32 tanks but makes 8 attacks. British 51st and 62nd divisions attack but gain only a mile and 500 PoWs vs hidden MGs (Battle of Tardenois until July 31).
Flanders: Erich Ludendorff cables Crown Prince Rupprecht: ‘In view of the situation of the Army Group Crown Prince Wilhelm which … will absorb a still great amount of troops, and … the possibility of a British offensive action the ‘Hagen’ operation will probably never come into execution.’
French troops take cover as one of their tanks is hit: https://i1.wp.com/ww2-weapons.com/w...k-hit.jpg?ssl=1
Last attempt to attack the British Isles with aeroplanes (unsuccessful) [There were altogether 59 airplane raids against the British Isles during which bombs were dropped. There were also 11 reconnaissance flights over parts of Great Britain or in the vicinity of the coast when no bombs were dropped. See also May 19th and August 5th.] (see December 21st, 1914, and August 5th, 1918).
American soldiers advancing at Chateau-Thierry to lay down wire: © IWM (Q 70264): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...904713045790720
A kitten balancing on top of a 12-inch artillery shell of the Royal Garrison Artillery at Arras: © IWM (Q 6860): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...010408999051264
A German soldier captured in his dugout at Meteren: © IWM (Q 6847): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...233116592590848
British tanks advance at the 2nd Battle of the Marne, while German prisoners are made to carry the wounded back behind lines: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...263326394257410
British officers of the 39th Battalion, Machine Gun Corps, with their dog mascot: © IWM (Q 9070): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...323729371553793

Naval and Overseas Operations
North Sea
: British submarine HMS E.34 hits a mine and sinks with all hands off the Frisian islands: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...293530730803200
Atlantic: British destroyer Marne sinks German submarine UB-124, after the latter attacks troopship Justicia; Justicia sinks after long fight, following persistent attacks since July 19 by coastal submarine UB-64 (Schrader) and a coup de grace from UB-124.
German submarine SM UB-110, seen here under construction is later raised for study by the British: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...934913141854208

Political, etc
France:
Ferdinand Foch asks Georges Clemenceau to call up 1920 conscript class at end of 1918.
United Kingdom: Mr. Balfour replies to Hertling's "pawn" speech.
“Threatening” meeting of munition workers at Birmingham.
United States: Animated American propaganda film “The Sinking of the Lusitania” is released. It is one of the longest animated films for its time: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipe....webm.480p.webm
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  #949  
Old Yesterday, 11:42 AM
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gekkogecko gekkogecko is offline
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Join Date: Jul 2002
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21 July 1918

Western Front
Second Battle of the Marne
: Château-Thierry retaken by French forces, after Germans retreat 5 miles (night July 20-21) (see 18th, 20th, and May 31st). French reach Lassery-Chateau-Thierry road on broad front. Between Marne and Reims, Anglo-French recapture Bois de Courton, advance down Ardre valley, capture (then lose) Marfaux and Coutrim. US 1st Division relieved (7,200 casualties) by British 15th (Scottish) Division.
French and British soldiers operate together, with a Hotchkiss mle 1900 machine-gun ready to provide fire support: https://i1.wp.com/ww2-weapons.com/w...ss-mg.jpg?ssl=1
Allied troops close in against the Germans in the Marne Salient. Shaded lines are German gains in the recent offensive still in their hands, while solid black are areas recaptured in the Allied counteroffensive: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...702467187757058
Ruins of Meteren after its capture by the British during the 2nd Battle of the Marne: © IWM (Q 6837): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...338834784096256
Boys placing flowers at the graves for Canadian soldiers buried at Shorncliffe:
https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...335052218134528
American troops in a damaged church in Lucy, France: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...565303552552960
Indian troops resting on the road to Soissons on their way to relieve French and American forces: © IWM (Q 78897): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...595502340067328
American soldiers displaying a German mantrap found in no man’s land near Altkirch, France: © IWM (Q 80259): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...626964019806209
A mobile shower used by the Americans to degass soldiers exposed to poison gas: © IWM (Q 60978): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...687364480487424

Eastern Front
Kuban
: White guerilla Colonel Shkuto captures Stavropol by threatening artillery bombardment (no guns but Reds evacuate). Denikin has to help to keep town and barely repels Sorokin’s Red counter-stroke.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theaters
Palestine
: Yeomanry Division renamed 4th Dav Division, 5th Cavalry Division joins DMC.
Arabia: Hejaz Railway: 1,800 Arabs (over 80 killed), guns, armored car and RAF planes repulsed by Jerdun Station’s 400 Turks and Maan garrison resupplied.

Naval and Overseas Operations
Atlantic:
German submarine SM U-156 shells the town of Orleans, Massachusetts, sinking 1 tugboat and 4 barges. There were no casualties, but it is the only German attack on the mainland US and the first foreign shelling since 1846.
Mozambique: Battle between British and Germans at Namirrue (near confluence of Rivers Namirrue and Ligonya).

Political, etc
United Kingdom
: Appeal of Ministry of Munitions to workers not to strike during critical battle.
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  #950  
Old Today, 10:27 AM
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gekkogecko gekkogecko is offline
Pixie's Resident Reptile
 
Join Date: Jul 2002
Location: Central MD, USA
Posts: 14,534
22 July 1918

Western Front
Second Battle of the Marne
: Allies hold German counter-attacks between Ourcq and Marne, and cross Marne near Dormans at Chassons and Passy. Franco-Americans reach Bezu-Epieds. Ludendorff finally orders southern half of salient to be abandoned. General Henri Gouraud re-occupies former positions between the Suippe river and Massiges.
An American company advancing. In July 1918, there were already one million US soldiers in France: https://i0.wp.com/ww2-weapons.com/w...arsch.jpg?ssl=1
France: General Harry Rogers AEF QMG (Quartermaster-general American Expedition Forces) at Tours.
American medic treating a wounded soldier at Chateau-Thierry, France: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...974246959505409
Indra Lal Roy, the only Indian flying ace in the war with 10 victories, is killed in action over Carvin, France: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...004448406163457
American artillery in action near Torcy, France: © IWM (Q 58212): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...034651207503872

Southern Front
Albania
: Allied offensive in Albania checked (see 6th, 10th, and August 22nd).

Naval and Overseas Operations
Mozambique
: Action at Fort Namirrue (until July 23): Paul von Lettow’s night attack destroys 3/3rd KAR Battalion of Fitzcol after its river crossing. Germans take fort and first mortar, some ex-German Askaris rejoin.

Political, etc
Austria-Hungary
: Dr. Ernst Ritter von Seidler finally succeeds in resigning the office of Minister-President of Austria. Ex-Education Minister Baron Max Hussarek von Heinlein succeeds on July 24.
Germany: At Avesnes Hindenburg tells Kaiser that the latest 1918 offensive is a failure; Wilhelm tells diners at Spa ‘I am a defeated War Lord to whom you must show consideration’.
France: Civilian exodus back to Paris begins.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the US Assistant Secretary of the Navy, arrives in France on a trip to inspect Allied naval administrations.
United Kingdom: Resignation of Lord Lee as Director-General of Food Production.
Munitions Ministry declares threatened Coventry strike ‘an attempt to overthrow the policy of the state’.
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